COVID-19 vaccine efficacy and effectiveness—the elephant (not) in the room: The Lancet

Although the RRR considers only participants who could benefit from the vaccine, the absolute risk reduction (ARR), which is the difference between attack rates with and without a vaccine, considers the whole population. ARRs tend to be ignored because they give a much less impressive effect size than RRRs: 1·3% for the AstraZeneca–Oxford, 1·2% for the Moderna–NIH, 1·2% for the J&J, 0·93% for the Gamaleya, and 0·84% for the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccines.


The following graphic illustrates the difference between Relative Risk Reduction and Absolute Risk Reduction. The article linked above is well-worth reading. Pay special attention to the concept: number needed to vaccinate (NNV)  for a better understanding of what vaccines do in the real world and how Big Pharma and Big Govt often distort the facts.

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