Epistemology, the study of knowledge, is not a centralized discipline that transcends space and time.
It’s deeply rooted in the humanistic context of culture, history, and religion. Thus, different places around the world have developed unique epistemological systems to account for human knowledge.
One of the most ancient of these systems is the Hindu concept of pramana (प्रमाण). Pramana encompasses the Hindu perspective on knowledge-making within the context of Indian culture and theology.
Yet it shares many similarities with Western epistemology and logic, not to mention other Indian and Eastern systems of knowledge-related thought.
The broad notion of pramana includes many diverse types of evidence that together compose an intellectual toolkit from which people can draw to gain knowledge.link